Category Archives: Multicultural

The Holtermann Museum Gulgong – it takes a community to build a museum.

I have been taking pictures since I received my first Kodak instamatic camera at age 13. I’m not really interested in post editing images – I aim to photograph what I see with the naked eye – the subject, the light and the emotion that goes with capturing an image at a single point in time. Perhaps that is why I connected so strongly to the photographs and digital images at the Gulgong Holtermann Museum – a permanent exhibition showing part of the Holtermann Collection relating to Gulgong, NSW and which documents 19th century Australian life in the goldfields.

Gulgong Holtermann Museum (photo: Lyndall Linaker)

Behind the heritage walls, the museum’s contemporary exhibition space is engaging and entertaining for all ages. The text panels and interpretation are well done and further enhanced by wonderfully knowledgeable guides. The touchscreens and mounted photographs enable visitors to become completely immersed in the restored and digitised black and white prints from the collection. 

Thematically as the visitor moves through the building, they can see the town and its people in 1872, learn the story of the men responsible for the images, and can find out more about the wet plate photographic techniques that they employed, the photographic equipment that was used, and the ‘discovery of the collection’ in 1951. There is also a comprehensive display of cameras from the earliest box and bellow-types up to the present and a film showing the restoration of the heritage buildings.

Gulgong Holtermann Museum heritage shopfronts (photo: Lyndall Linaker)

I came across the museum by accident while researching a member of the family who was an “ironmonger, oil and colourman” and had a shop in Herbert Street, Gulgong. I believe that it is one of the best small museums that I’ve visited world wide. There’s a great story behind its creation, because without a driven and committed Gulgong Community that fundraised over a million dollars to save two of its heritage buildings and a sleuthing Photographic magazine editor who asked the right questions to the State Library of NSW, the Gulgong Holtermann Museum may never have been born. 

The images are amazing, but the fact that the glass plates used to make the images have survived at all, is a story in itself. Keast Burke was Editor of the Australian Photo Review when he enquired to the Mitchell Library in NSW about the existence of some glass plates associated with Bernard Holtermann. These particular plates showed panoramic views of Sydney in the 19th century. As a result, in 1951, 3500 or more glass plates (including the Gulgong plates) were unearthed from a garden shed in Chatswood, NSW. The glass plate negatives were donated to the Mitchell Library in 1952 by Holtermann’s grandson and became known as the Holtermann Collection

Merlin and Bayliss photographed literally everything in the rapidly growing towns of Gulgong and its surrounding villages – including diggings, businesses, the buildings, street scenes, panoramic views and the local people.The images were distinctive because of the groups that they photographed casually standing in front of the buildings – owners, workers and passers by – providing a microscopic view of life in a classic Australian gold rush town. 

Quite apart from the technical expertise required by Merlin and Bayliss for such a massive undertaking, it is their haunting images which capture the essence of each subject so beautifully and engage with the visitors to the museum. They bring Gulgong to life and create a real sense of the way that people survived in the goldfields at that time. Even in the harsh winter environment of 1872, the subjects are captured in their finest clothing, photographed with their prized possessions or in front of their shops or outside basic dwellings which were constructed from locally found materials. The photographer needed the subjects to be still for 8 seconds and so you can observe that many of the children have their heads held by a grownup or ghostly animals and people appear in the frame because unfortunately there was movement during that 8 seconds.  The Holtermann collection is deemed so important that it was included on the UNESCO Australian Memory of the World register in May 2013.

Thanks to the support of the State Library of NSW and a range of sponsors, the Gulgong Holtermann Museum is the only detailed and permanent exhibition of the unique Holtermann collection. It is a contemporary museum housed in two beautifully restored 1870’s gold rush buildings situated in Mayne Street, Gulgong. These two buildings along with many others were photographed in 1872 by Merlin and Bayliss and later acquired by Holtermann to form part of the UNESCO listed Holtermann Collection of photographs. So much of the town is still recognisable today from the digital collection and it’s an added bonus to stare into the faces of the people who lived in Gulgong in the 1870s and experience both evocative and humbling.

Holtermann with his nugget – photo: Merlin and Bayliss c.1872

Bernhard Otto Holtermann was a man of many talents, but for me, his most important role was that of wealthy gold miner and philanthropist who commissioned travelling photographer Henry Beaufoy Merlin, ((founder of the American and Australasian Photographic Company (A & A Photographic Company)) to photograph a massive piece of reef gold found in his mine before it was sent to be crushed. This meeting led to an amazing photographic partnership, Holtermann offering land for Merlin’s studio in Hill End and then sponsoring the work of Merlin and his young assistant, Charles Bayliss to photograph Hill End and Gulgong. Holtermann, a German migrant, supported Merlin’s quest to document the settled areas of New South Wales and Victoria and wanted to present these photographs of Australia overseas as part of an International Travelling Exposition to advertise the colonies and encourage migration.

The people of Gulgong 1872 – Museum Courtyard (photo: Lyndall Linaker)

After Merlin’s death in 1873, the project was continued by his assistant, Charles Bayliss and the collection, amounting to around five hundred glass plate negatives, was purchased by Holtermann to add to his own collection of previously commissioned works by Merlin and Bayliss. Only a small percentage of the A&A Photographic Company’s output has survived, but 3,500* small format wet plate negatives (including extensive coverage of the towns of Hill End and Gulgong) and the world’s largest wet plate negatives, measuring a massive 0.97 x 1.60 metres, are held by the State Library of New South Wales.

You can see more of Merlin and Bayliss’s work just over an hour away at the Hill End historic site which is managed by National Parks NSW. The Heritage Centre is located in the restored 1950’s Rural Fire Service Shed and also displays images from the Holtermann collection showcasing the Hillend goldfields. It adds value to your site visit making it easy to reimagine the scenes outside from Merlin and Bayliss’s images in your head.

Post Office at Hill End (Photo: Lyndall Linaker)

*Merlin retired as manager of the NSW branch of A&A Photographic Company in February 1872 and sold the business to Andrew Carlisle. Unfortunately, Carlisle sold all the view negatives of the company in September 1872, so it seems all the views taken throughout Victoria and NSW by Merlin and Bayliss in 1870 and 1871 were destroyed at that time. Some reports of 17,000 images.

Extra notes

In 1875, Holtermann and Bayliss produced the Holtermann panorama – a series about Sydney taken from the tower of his home in North Sydney,  which was an impressive 10 metres in length and received the Bronze award at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and a Silver Medal at the Paris Exposition Universelle Internationale in 1878.

The advertising below states that Beaufoy Merlin also created 800 views of Parramatta but sadly this collection does not appear to be intact. There are some of his images in the Sydney Living Museums and Historic Houses Trust Collections, J.K.S. Houison collection held by the Society of Australian Genealogists. Anyone with glass plate negatives in their shed, please come forward now.

Excerpt from Sydney Morning Herald, 21 September 1870 – Advertising 

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/13219139

Further Reading

Creating with Communities/Make Museums Matter/The Museum of the Future https://themuseumofthefuture.com/2017/12/19/creating-with-communities-make-museums-matter/

Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums/The Museum of the Future https://themuseumofthefuture.com/2019/05/15/intangible-cultural-heritage-and-museums/

Perspectives on Digital Engagement with Culture and Heritage by Jasper Visser in Inspired by Coffee https://inspiredbycoffee.com/ibc15par/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Visser-Summer131.pdf

Museums of the Future – Selected Blogposts about Museums in times of technological and social change. Jasper Visser https://themuseumofthefuture.com/download/1594/

Active Participation: Museums Empowering the Community by Marilyn Scott on Museum-id https://museum-id.com/active-participation-museums-empowering-community-marilyn-scott/

https://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/henry-beaufoy-merlin-australian-showman-and-photographer

https://geoffbarker.wordpress.com/2018/11/25/beaufoy-merlin-showman-and-photographer/

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PbGMMCa5nGlHphpsVhX9EoiIb4IHbwp9/view

A modern vision – Charles Bayliss Photographer, 1850 -1897 https://www.nla.gov.au/pub/ebooks/pdf/A%20Modern%20Vision.pdf

Parramatta – The museum that never was ……. we are still talking about it 120 years later.

It’s often said that history repeats itself. The case for a museum in Parramatta is no exception, the conversation has been happening for more than 120 years and I’m sure that there is sufficient primary source material available to produce a PhD thesis on the subject.

Old Government House, Parramatta

Digitised newspaper articles from the past (via TROVE) reveal that as early as 1899, James Burns had suggested that Old Government House at Parramatta be made into a museum of Australian curiosities. He was willing to have his ships collect curiosities and rare items from the Pacific region, which his company traded with for business purposes.

Daily Telegraph  Saturday 1 July 1899

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/239530843

A ground swell movement for a museum rose in response to Parramatta Council’s invitation for residents to come forward with ideas for commemorating the foundation of the city. People thought it appropriate to have a permanent structure to celebrate the city and to be passed on for the enjoyment of future generations.

An awareness for the need to preserve monuments and collect historical items relating to Parramatta in around 1888, the centenary of Parramatta’s foundation. Towards the end of the 19th century citizens of Parramatta began expressing a need for a museum to be built to commemorate the achievements of Parramatta and to provide an attraction for visitors to the area. In a letter to the editor of the Cumberland Argus, James Purser felt the “town would be deserving of such an institution being the oldest in Australia.”

http://ref.arc.parracity.nsw.gov.au/blog/2013/12/03/the-parramatta-and-district-historical-society-100-years-old-looking-back-to-its-beginnings/

A section of an article from 8 April 1905 rings true to the discussions we are having about a museum in Parramatta in 2020. There has been ongoing community debate for several years about whether or not the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences (Powerhouse Museum) should be moved holus bolus to Parramatta. The conclusion is still the same – that Parramatta deserves to have a world class museum to reflect on the past and celebrate the present. It is a city of great cultural diversity with significant cultural heritage which needs to be preserved or repurposed rather than knocked down and redeveloped without much thought.

Questions about the Powerhouse move included the loss of heritage buildings to make way for the museum and whether the whole project has been sufficiently well thought out and will meet the needs of people living in Parramatta and Western Sydney. After all the years of talking, it would seem that Parramatta needs both a Powerhouse Museum satellite and its own Museum of Parramatta.

Saturday 8 April 1905

In 1905 there was opposition from Alderman Bartlett (Parramatta City Council) to the museum being built on the southern side of the Town Hall and whether the money could be better spent on subsidising a hospital ward. 

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/85994942

At a meeting of Parramatta Council on Saturday 1 July 1911 to discuss the 50 year Jubilee celebrations, it was suggested that the foundation stone be laid for a Historical Museum the building of which should cost no more than £400 spread over a term of years. If only it had gone ahead at that time we may have an institution like the Australian Museum or the Art Gallery of NSW in Parramatta, but alas …… the talking continued.

On 3 July 1912,  Mr. J. H. Murray, one of the brothers of the Murray Brothers shopping emporium, raised the proposal to establish a local history association. Murray pointed out that “there were a number of ancient landmarks – Old Government House, the Observatory and others – which should be preserved in the interests of future generations.”

William Freame, a long term Parramatta Historian, wrote a letter to the Cumberland Argus in September 1913, noting that he was surprised that so little had been done to preserve Parramatta’s memorials and perpetuate its history.

From the City of Parramatta Research Services Blog 2013 quotes a letter by Freame to the Cumberland Argus in September 1913: 

“Look where I may, I see signs of vandalism, and the hand of the spoiler at work. And there were those, who would have turned its beautiful oak avenues into a highway for wood and brick carts, because of the stray coin or two they might have brought with them; And yet there has been so much that might have been done to preserve ‘Old Parramatta,’ and it has not been done. I remember the scores of old photographs and the several valuable engravings the late Mr. John Taylor possessed; where are they now?”

3 January 1925

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/16202968

By 1925, there were so many newspaper articles being written about The Australian Museum and the War Museum (The Australian War Memorial Museum) in Sydney. It isn’t surprising that there remained a push for a museum at Parramatta as the city continued to grow in size. I have not been able to determine who wrote the anonymous letter to the Editor of the Cumberland Argus shown below. Perhaps some research into primary source material or the handwritten Council Minutes of the time could pinpoint the author.

23 January 1925

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/103763750

The handwritten minutes of the City of Parramatta Council meetings from the 1930s mentions that one of the Misses Swann (from Elizabeth Farm, Parramatta) was involved in both the Parramatta Historical Society as well as  Parramatta Historical Museum Committee. The article below from the Cumberland Argus confirms that Miss Swann and both organisations came together in favour of building a museum in Parramatta. They also called for donations to the collection.

Thursday 14 November 1935

An article in the Sydney Morning Herald the following year again mentions that the committee is looking for material from the district and from several well known, old Parramattan families in particular.

Sydney Morning Herald Tuesday 31 March 1936

On Thursday 28 May 1936, The Cumberland Argus refers to the new Museum playing an important part in connecting people to the Sesquicentenary celebrations of Parramatta in 1938. “No doubt many overseas visitors will come to Parramatta during that year and that  material of historic value will be of appeal to these people”. It also mentions that in the United States of America, “there is not a state in the union without a historical museum and the oldest states have several museums” and that they are recognised as “an important element of cultural character”.

“Parramatta, the oldest town in the State Outside Sydney should be the first to set up a Historical Museum”. Daily Telegraph 29 June 1936

Then in August 1936, The Cumberland Argus reported on a dispute over the new museum and the “acrimonious exchanges” between  the Historical Museum Committee, Parramatta Council and The Parramatta Historical Society (PHS) which led to the PHS disassociating itself from the Parramatta Historical Museum Committee and developing a museum of its own.

Wed 2 November 1938

World War II intervened and there appears to be very little in the paper about a museum for Parramatta until 1948 when the subject was again discussed in the local newspaper. The following year Parramatta City Council accepted an offer from the estate of Sir Joseph Cook accepting his Windsor Court Dress and insignia of the Order of St Michael and St George. Many years later after the uniform went missing and was found in a council storeroom, Philip Ruddock called for a museum to be built in Parramatta. In 1949 Parramatta City Council tried to secure Old Government House as a permanent site for a museum but it was during the sixties that Old Government House was acquired and dedicated as a house museum after it was vacated by The King’s School. During the sixties there was a movement to protect some of Parramatta’s heritage buildings from developers. Too late for the buildings from The Vineyard and Subiaco Estate which were demolished to make way for a car park for Rheem Australia Pty Ltd.

Privy Council uniform made for Joseph Cook (Prime Minister 1913-1914) in 1914. The uniform consists of a jacket with tails, pair of trousers, cloak (now missing), ceremonial sash, ceremonial half sash (possibly for wearing with the cloak), sword and sword holster. The Privy Council uniform and ceremonial sword were worn on special occasions, such as the opening of Parliament. In 1918 Cook was presented with the insignia of the Order of St Michael and St George. The set consists of a collar and star, worn with the Privy Council uniform. Parramatta Heritage Centre. City of Parramatta Council collection.

Looking back, we can see how much the city of Parramatta has changed from a colonial settlement on Aboriginal land to a diverse and vibrant city in 2020. Our cultural heritage is constantly changing but it is important to reflect all the layers of history in a world class facility which brings people together and is a safe place to discuss all aspects of Australia’s past and to reflect how this has affected us and how we can move forward into the future. We have spoken about needing a museum and protecting our cultural heritage for too long. 120 years later – let’s act.

Extra reading

The articles below are the tip of the iceberg as far as truth and fiction about the Powerhouse move and the need for a significant museum in Parramatta. I think that the fact that the building of a museum has been argued about for more than 120 years shows that now is the time to get our act together to create a museum which showcases the history and cultural heritage of Parramatta, Western Sydney and NSW in all its glorious layers Indigenous, Colonial and Multicultural Australian.

The Parramatta and District Historical Society, 100 Years Old. Looking back to its beginnings.

The other side – why the Powerhouse should move west. https://visual.artshub.com.au/news-article/features/museums/gina-fairley/the-other-side-why-the-powerhouse-should-move-west-253455

Opinion: Parramatta Powerhouse Move better for Sydney  https://thechamber.com.au/Media/Opinion-Parramatta-Powerhouse-Move-Better-for-Syd

Trashing the Powerhouse Museum https://cityhubsydney.com.au/2020/01/trashing-the-powerhouse-museum/

How the Powerhouse was saved https://www.cultureheist.com.au/2020/07/08/how-the-powerhouse-was-saved/

Five Museum Ideas for Parramatta. Kylie Winkworth. https://powerhousemuseumalliance.com/museum-opportunities/five-museum-ideas-for-parramatta/

Concept – Museum of Parramatta https://museumwhisperings.blog/2019/10/19/concept-museum-of-parramatta/

Plea for History Museum at Parramatta https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/105736073